Architectural style of baroque. Baroque architecture (L. Bernini, F. Borromini in Italy, B. F. Rastrelli in Russia) is characterized by the spatial scope, fusion, fluidity of complex, usually curvilinear forms, the richness of stucco decor.
Often there are deployed large-scale colonnades, an abundance of sculptures on facades and interiors, volutes, a large number of raskrepovok, luchkovye facades with raskopovkoy in the middle, rustovannye columns and pilasters. The domes take on complex shapes, often they are stacked like St. Peter’s in Rome. Characteristic details of baroque – telomon (atlant), caryatid, mascaron.
In Italian architecture, the most prominent Baroque representative was Carlo Maderna (1556-1629), who broke with Mannerism (later the Renaissance) and created his own style. His main creation is the facade of the Roman church of Santa Susanna (1603) (see the photo on the right). Pay attention to the abundance and complexity of the architectural elements of the facade.
The main figure in the development of Baroque sculpture was Lorenzo Bernini, whose first new-style masterpieces date back to about 1620. Bernini is also an architect. He owns the decoration of the square of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome (see photo gallery after the article) and interiors, as well as other buildings. A significant contribution was left by D. Fontana, R. Raynaldi, G. Gvarini, B. Longen, L. Vanvitelli, P. da Cortona.
The Queen of Coranaro in the church of Santa Maria della Vittoria (1645-1652) is considered the quintessence of Baroque, an impressive fusion of painting, sculpture and architecture (see photo gallery).
Baroque style in European countries
Baroque style is spreading in Spain, Germany, Belgium (then Flanders), the Netherlands, Russia, France. In France, the Baroque style is more modest than in other countries. It used to be that here the style did not develop at all, and Baroque monuments were considered monuments of classicism. Sometimes use the term “baroque classicism” in relation to the French and English versions of the Baroque.
Now the French Baroque is considered the Palace of Versailles (see photo gallery), along with a regular park, the Luxembourg Palace (see photo on the left), the building of the French Academy in Paris and other works. They really have some features of classicism. A characteristic feature of the Baroque style is the regular style in landscape art, an example of which is the Versailles Park.
Later, at the beginning of the 18th century. The French have developed their own style, a variety of baroque – rococo. It manifested itself not in the external design of the facades of buildings, but only in interiors, as well as in the design of books, in clothing, furniture, and painting. The style was spread throughout Europe and in Russia.
Architectural style of the Baroque in Russia
In Russia, baroque appears in the XVII century (“Naryshkin Baroque”, “Golitsyn Baroque”). In the 18th century, in the reign of Peter I, development in St. Petersburg and the suburbs in the work of D. Trezzini – the so-called “Peter’s Baroque” (more reserved) -has flourished in the reign of Elizaveta Petrovna. Chevakinsky and B. Rastrelli.
In Germany, the outstanding Baroque monument is the New Palace in Sanssouci (authors – I. G. Bühring, H. L. Munter) and the Summer Palace (see photo) in the same place (G.V. von Knobelsdorf). The largest and most famous baroque ensembles in the world are Versailles (France), Peterhof (Russia), Aranjuez (Spain), Zwinger (Germany), Schönbrunn (Austria).
Russian Baroque (also Elizabethan, Rastrelli) – style in art (primarily in architecture, sculpture and painting); Russian “replica” of the European Baroque style, fully developed in Russian art by the end of the first half of the XVIII century.
This style, which gravitated towards the creation of heroic images, to the glorification of the might of the Russian Empire, was most clearly manifested in the middle of the 18th century in the architectural constructions of one of the greatest architects of this direction, F. B. Rastrelli. His projects created magnificent palace ensembles in Petersburg (Winter, 1754-1762, Stroganov Palace, 1752-1754, see the photo on the right) and in Peterhof (1746-1775), in Tsarskoe Selo (Catherine Palace, 1747-1757 (see. a photo)).
The grandiose scale of the buildings, the extraordinary richness and splendor of the decorative decoration, the two- and three-color painting of the facades with the use of gold – all this amazed the imagination of the audience, provoking their sincere admiration. The solemn, festive character of Rastrelli’s architecture left an imprint on all Russian art of the mid-18th century.
Brief description of the architectural style of baroque
Characteristic features: symmetry in style, space. A lot of stucco. Complex architectural elements. Abundance of decorative bas-reliefs. Gilding of architectural decor.
Predominant colors: muted pastel colors of the facade; red, pink, white, blue with a yellow accent – in the interior.
Lines: a whimsical convex-concave asymmetric pattern; in the form of a semicircle, a rectangle, an oval; vertical lines of columns; marked horizontal division.
Form: arched, domed and rectangular; towers, balconies, bay windows.
Elements of an interior: aspiration to greatness and splendor; massive front staircases; columns, pilasters, bas-reliefs, richly decorated stucco trim for windows and doors, stucco and painting, carved ornament; interrelation of design elements.
Constructions: contrasting, intense, dynamic; Fascinating on the facade and at the same time massive and stable.
Windows: semi-circular and rectangular; with a vegetative decoration around the perimeter. The plat bands are decorated magnificently.
Doors: arched openings with columns; vegetable decoration.