The name “eclecticism” came from the Greek εκλεκτός, “the chosen, the choicest”. Eclecticism in architecture is the direction in architecture that dominated Europe and Russia in the 1830s and 1890s. In foreign terminology it is called romanticism (for the second quarter of the XIX century), Beaux-Arts (bos-ar) (for the second half of the XIX century) and historicism (in the modern world).
It is characterized by a mixture of various “historical” styles, such as neo-Renaissance, neo-Baroque, neo-Rococo, neo-Gothic, neo-Mauritanian style, neo-Byzantine style, pseudo-Russian style, Indo-Saracenic style.
The history of eclecticism
At the beginning of the last century, avant-garde artists in an attempt to create something new all the time “stumbled” into something that had once been created by someone and reflected, for example, in the ancient cultures of China or India, Sumerian manuscripts or sculptures of Mesopotamia.
And it became clear that if you follow the path of some borrowing and combining an existing one, you can create something new and interesting.
Modern art design mixes Western and Eastern, old and new – art deco with high-tech and ethno, that is, the interiors of the beginning of the third millennium are stylistically multicomponent. It is customary to call Eclecticism (historicism) Famous architectural buildings of Eclecticism and Historism:
Forms and building styles in eclecticism are tied to its function. The eclectic is “multi-style” in the sense that the buildings of one period are based on different style schools, depending on the purpose of the buildings (temples, public buildings, factories, private houses) and customer funds (there are rich decor that fills all surfaces of construction, and economical ” red brick architecture). In this fundamental difference of eclecticism from the Empire, dictating a single style for buildings of any type.
The main features of Eclecticism
Strictly speaking, eclecticism in itself is not a separate style, since its peculiarity is precisely the blending of different styles on different bases. Quite often in the environment of professional architects, the term eclecticism is negative, as a direction that does not adhere to a specific framework of styles.
On the other hand, it should be noted that sometimes a combination of certain styles, made with a taste and a subtle flair, can create unique works of architecture and interior design. Characteristic features of the eclectic style are, close plexus in the construction of the building of technical aspects with artistic, monumentality, an abundance of decorative elements.